Diabetes and its complications
Diabetes mellitus occurs when the body is unable to maintain blood sugar levels properly.
According to the World Health Organization, more than 420 million people are currently suffering from diabetes worldwide. This is 25% more than 40 years ago.
Diabetes is a chronic disease that cannot be completely eradicated. However, modern methods for controlling blood sugar levels are currently being developed. This will ensure that patients with diabetes live longer and happier lives than other healthy people. In this case, a person can stop making changes in his lifestyle and habits.
There are several types of diabetes. The most common of these is type 2 diabetes. In this type of diabetes, the production of insulin hormone responsible for the absorption of blood sugar by the body’s cells is either reduced or (or) hindered by proper functioning. These changes usually occur in middle and elderly people.
Who is most likely to suffer from diabetes?
If a person leads a sedentary lifestyle, is obese, has an unhealthy diet (high and high calories), and high blood pressure, he or she will be more likely to start early.
Heredity plays an important role in the disease.
How is blood sugar controlled?
All healthy people have high levels of sugar (glucose) as their main source of energy. Blood enters the blood in two ways:
Foods that contain carbohydrates.
From the reserves of glucose (glycogen) in the liver.
As a source of energy, sugar enters the muscle cell (for work), fat and liver tissue (for backup). The insulin hormone produced by the pancreas enters the sugar (glucose) cells.
After eating, blood sugar levels increase. However, the pancreas immediately produces and distributes insulin to the bloodstream, which opens the gates of all cells to glucose. After glucose enters the cells, the blood sugar returns to normal. Blood sugar is replenished from the liver reserves during meals and during sleep. This process is also controlled by insulin.
In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces insulin. But:
Insulin is not produced at the right time and in the right amount, and over time, insulin production decreases.
Normally, let’s say, one insulin molecule is required to open one cell gate to glucose, and several types of insulin molecules in type 2 diabetes. In other words, insulin resistance increases.
Diagnosis of diabetes requires measuring blood sugar.
What are the symptoms of diabetes?
Diabetes is manifested by constant fatigue, frequent thirst, excessive weight loss, hunger, frequent and frequent urinary incontinence, short sores, decreased sensation in the legs, and loss of eyesight. .
Why is diabetes dangerous?
At the onset of diabetes, the patient is not known for a long time. Often a diagnosis is made when symptoms of the disease appear. Late diagnosis and late treatment may lead to complications and complications.
The complications of diabetes can be divided into early and late forms. Early complications are associated with a dramatic drop or increase in blood sugar levels. These include hypo- and hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and others.
Late complications of diabetes are due to the effects on many organs and systems in the body. It mainly affects the brain, eyes, heart and vascular system, kidneys, nerve fibers, feet and other internal organs.
In patients with diabetes, long-term high blood sugar causes eye disease (diabetic retinopathy). This can cause blindness and even loss of vision. The impact of diabetes on the eyes begins long before the eyesight declines. Therefore, patients with diabetes need to be constantly under eye care.
Vascular complications are the leading cause of disability and mortality in diabetes. These include angina (chest pain and sore throats), stroke, vascular disease in the legs (purulent wounds and ulcers caused by poor blood flow to the legs), lungs and other tissues.